1.To separate the parts of a cell by differences in density, a biologist would probably use (a) a micro-dissection instrument (b) an ultracentrifuge (c) a phase-contrast microscope (d)an electronmicroscope

2. Which microscope magnification should be used to observe the largest field of view of an insect wing? (a) 20x (b) 100 x (c) 400 x (d) 900 x

3.The diameter of the field of vision of a compound light microscope is 1.5 millimeters. This may also be expressed as (a) 15 micrometers (b) 150 micrometers (c) 1,500 micrometers (d) 15,000 micrometers

4. To transplant a nucleus from one cell to another cell, a scientist would use (a) an electron microscope (b) an ultracentrifuge (c) microdissection instruments (d) staining techniques

5. A student using a compound microscope measured several red blood cells and found that the average cell length was 0.008 millimeter. What is the average length of a single red blood cell in micrometers? (a) 0.8 (b) 8 (c) 80 (d) 800

6. A student using a compound microscope estimated the diameter of a cheek cell to be 50 micrometers. What is the diameter of this cheek cell in millimeters? (a) 0.050 mm (b) 0.500 mm (c) 5.00 mm (d) 50.9 mm

7. What is the principal inorganic solvent in cells? (a) salt (b) water (c) alcohol (d) carbon dioxide

8. Fats that are stored in human tissue contain molecules of (a) glycerol and fatty acids (b) amino acids (c) monosaccharides and disaccharides (d) nucleotides

9. One of the carbon compounds found in a cell has twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. This compound most likely belongs to the group of substances known as (a) nucleic acids (b) lipids (c) proteins (d) carbohydrates

10. Which formula represents an organic compound? (a) NH3 (b) H20 (c) NaCl (d) C12H22011

11. When two molecules are joined together chemically, a molecule of water is released. This process is known as (a) dehydration synthesis (b) hydrolysis (c) absorption (d) transpiration pull

12. A rotten egg may give off a foul-smelling gas containing sulfur. Which decomposing chemical compounds in the egg are most likely the source of this odor? (a) proteins (b) nucleic acids (c) carbohydrates (d) lipids

13. Starch is classified as a (a) disaccharide (b) polypeptide (c) nucleotide (d) polysaccharide

14. What two molecules are produced when two glucose molecules are chemically bonded together? (a) a lipid and an enzyme (b) a polypeptide and oxygen (c) a polysaccharide and carbon dioxide (d) a disaccharide and water

15. Which organic compound is correctly matched with the subunit that composes it? (a) maltoseamino acid (b) starch-glucose (c) protein-fatty acid (d) lipid-sucrose

16. A chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons is referred to as (a) covalent (b) acidic (c) ionic (d) double

17. A chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another is referred to as (a) covalent (b) acidic (c) ionic (d) double

18.Which of the following is characteristic of an enzyme?
(a) It is an inorganic catalyst.
(b) It is destroyed after each chemical reaction.
(c) It provides energy for any chemical reaction
(d) It regulates the rate of a specific chemical reaction.

19. The "lock-and-key" model of enzyme action illustrates that a particular enzyme molecule
(a) forms a permanent enzyme-substrate complex
(b) may be destroyed and resynthesized several times
(c) interacts with a specific type of substrate molecule
(d) reacts at identical rates under all conditions

20. An enzyme-substrate complex may result from the interaction of molecules of (a) glucose and lipase (b) fat and amylase (c) sucrose and maltase (d)protein and protease

21.The part of the enzyme molecule into which the substrate fits is called the (a) active site (b) coenzyme (c) polypeptide (d) protease

22. A nonprotein molecule necessary for the functioning of a certain enzyme is called a (a) catalyst (b) polypeptide (c) coenzyme (d) substrate

23. Which of the following variables has the least direct effect on the rate of an enzyme-regulated reaction? (a) temperature (b) pH (c) carbon dioxide concentration (d) enzyme concentration

24. By which process are C02 and H20converted to carbohydrates? (a) transpiration (b) respiration (c) fermentation (d) photosynthesis

25. The conversion of light energy into chemical bond energy occurs within the cells of (a) molds (b) yeasts (c) algae (d) grasshoppers

26. Glucose molecules may be stored in plants in the form of (a) oxygen (b) starch (c) nucleic acids (d) amino acids

26. Knowing that red glass transmits mainly red light, green glass mainly green light, yellow glass mainly yellow light, and orange glass mainly orange light, a stdent set up an experiment to determine the effect of light color on glucose production. She selected jars of each of the above colors and grew a bean plant in each jar under controlled conditions in the presence of natural light. The greatest amount of glucose would most likely be produced by the bean plant growing in the jar whose color was
(a) red (b) yellow (c) green (d) orange

27. The basic raw materials for photosynthesis are
(a)water and carbon dioxide (b) oxygen and water (c)sugar and carbon dioxide (d) water and oxygen

28. In autotrophic plants, stored starch may be converted into small organic molecules by the process of (a) transpiration (b) aerobic respiration (c) intracellular digestion (d) extracellular digestion

29. Which word equation represents the process of photosynthesis?

(a) carbon dioxide + water <--> glucose + oxygen + water
(b) glucose <--> alcohol + carbon dioxide
(c) maltose + water <--> glucose + glucose
(d) glucose + oxygen <--> carbon dioxide + water

30. Autotrophic activity in green plant cells is most closely associated with organelles called (a) mitochondria (b) ribosomes (c) vacuoles (d) chloroplasts

31. Bromthymol blue turns to bromthymol yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide. When the carbon dioxide is removed, the solution will return to a blue color. Two green water plants were placed in separate test tubes, each containing water and bromthymol yellow. Both test tubes were corked. One tube was placed in the light, the other in the dark. After several days, the liquid in the tube exposed to the light turned blue. This demonstration illustrates that, during photosynthesis, green plants
(a) take in carbon dioxide (b) need bromthymol blue (c) give off oxygen gas (d) form ATP molecules

32. A functional difference between animals and green plants is that green plants are able to
(a) synthesize glucose (b) break down carbohydrates (c) carry on aerobic respiration (d) form ATP molecules

33. Which compound is formed in the process of photosynthesis? (a) DNA (b) PGAL (c) colchicine (d) ammonia

34. Which form of energy is absorbed by green plants during phase I? (a) heat energy (b) light energy (c) nuclear energy (d) chemical energy

35. The oxygen present in the water molecule in phase I is
(a) released as molecular oxygen (b) released as chemical energy (c) incorporated into PGAL (d) incorporated into glucose

36. Phase II is often referred to as (a) oxidation (b) hydrolysis (c) carbon fixation (d) aerobic respiration

37. A three-carbon sugar formed during phase II is (a) carbon dioxide (b) glucose (c) ATP (d) PGAL

38. The reaction in phase I occurs in the (a) grana (b) stroma (c) Golgi apparatus (d) cell wall

39. Which statement correctly describes part of the photosynthetic process in plants?
(a) Oxygen is used in the dark reactions. (b) Carbon dioxide is released in the dark reactions. (c) Water is split in the light reactions. (d) Alcohol is produced by the light reactions.

40. During photosynthesis, molecules of oxygen are liberated from the "splitting" of water molecules due to the (a) dark reactions (b) light reactions (c) formation of PGAL (d) formation Of C02

41. During chemical digestion, large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules by the process of (a) synthesis (b) absorption (c) hydrolysis (d) excretion

42. Based on their pattern of nutrition, most animals are classified as (a) autotrophic (b) heterotrophic (c) photosynthetic (d) phagocytic

43. Which occurs as a result of the action of hydrolytic enzymes?
(a) Inorganic substances are converted directly to organic substances.
(b) Complex organic molecules are made more soluble.
(c) Glucose molecules are converted to starches.
(d) Glucose molecules are converted to maltase molecules.

44. Which is an example of enzyme-controlled intracellular digestion?
(a) An ameba digests a microorganism within its food vacuole.
(b) A human digests food mechanically within its stomach.
(c) A grasshopper digests a piece of grass within its intestine.
(d) An earthworm grinds food within its gizzard.

45. A fruit fly is classified as a heterotroph, rather than as an autotroph, because it is unable to
(a) transport needed materials through the body
(b) release energy from organic molecules
(c) manufacture its own food
(d) divide its cells mitotically

46. What are the end products of carbohydrate hydrolysis? (a) amino acids (b) simple sugars (c) hydrogen ions (d) fatty acids

47. The principal function of mechanical digestion is the
(a) hydrolysis of food molecules for storage in the liver
(b) production of more surface area for enzyme action
(c) synthesis of enzymes necessary for food absorption
(d) breakdown of large molecules to smaller ones by the addition of water

48. The process by which digestive enzymes catalyze the breakdown of larger molecules with the addition of water is known as (a) synthesis (b) pinocytosis (c) hydrolysis (d) photosynthesis

49. The end products of protein digestion are (a) amino acids (b) fatty acids (c) simple sugars (d) nucleotides

50. An organism with a one-way digestive tube is the (a) paramecium (b) earthworm (c) ameba (d) hydra

51. In paramecia, most intracellular hydrolysis occurs within structures known as (a) ribosomes (b) endoplasmic reticula (c) mitochondria (d) food vacuoles

52. Which organism ingests food by engulfing it with pseudopods? (a) grasshopper (b) paramecium (c)earthworm (d) ameba

53. Which organism lacks a one-way (tube-within-a-tube) digestive system? (a) hydra (b) earthworm (c) grasshopper (d) human

54. The grinding action on food that occurs in the gizzard of a grasshopper is an example of which nutritional process? (a) ingestion (b) egestion (c) chemical digestion (d) mechanical digestion


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