1. Which process would include a net movement of sugar molecules through a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration? (a) osmosis (b) cyclosis (c) active transport (d) passive transport

2. In the human body, the potassium ion can pass easily through cell membranes, yet the potassium ion concentration is higher inside many cells than it is outside these cells. This condition is mainly a result of the process of (a) passive transport (b) active transport (c) osmosis (d) pinocytosis

3. Chemical analysis indicates that the cell membrane is composed mainly of (a) proteins and starch (b) proteins and cellulose (c) lipids and starch (d) lipids and proteins

4. The net flow of materials through the membrane of a cell against a concentration gradient is known as (a) passive transport (b) active transport (c) osmosis (d) pinocytosis

5. The natural streaming of the cytoplasm that occurs within all cells is called (a) pinocytosis (b) phagocytosis (c) osmosis (d) cyclosis

6. When a cell uses energy to move materials across a cell membrane, the process is known as (a) osmosis (b) active transport (c) diffusion (d) passive transport

7. The diffusion of water molecules into and out of cells is called (a) cyclosis (b) pinocytosis (c) osmosis (d) homeostasis

8. The net movement of molecules into cells is most dependent upon the
(a) selectivity of the plasma membrane
(b) selectivity of the cell wal
(c) number of nucleoli
(d) number of chromosomes

9. A red blood cell placed in distilled water will swell and burst due to the diffusion of
(a) salt from the red blood cell into the water
(b) water into the red blood cel
(c) water from the blood cell into its environmen
(d) salts from the water into the red blood cell

10.The primary function of root hairs in a plant is to
(a) prevent excessive loss of water
(b) provide increased surface area for absorption
(c) conduct water and minerals upward
(d) conduct organic food materials upward and downward

11. Which structures are found in the veins of a maple leaf? (a) phloem cells (b) guard cells (c) chloroplasts (d) capillaries

12. The mechanism by which water moves from the roots to the leaves of a tall tree is known as (a) evaporation (b) transpiration (c) adhesion (d) transpirational pull

13.The destruction of xylem tissues in a maple tree most directly interferes with the movement of
(a) carbon dioxide out of the leaves
(b) water to the leaves
(c) oxygen out of the leaves
(d) nutrients down to the roots

14. The tissue that conducts organic food throughout a vascular plant is composed of (a) cambium cells (b) xylem cells (c) phloem cells (d) epidermal cells

15. The process by which water evaporates from the leaves of a plant is called (a) cohesion (b) respiration (c) active transport (d) transpiration

16. The dissolved sugars produced in the leaves of a maple tree move to the tree's roots through the (a) xylem (b) phloem (c) epidermis (d) guard cells

17. When a living geranium plant is enclosed in a large jar, water droplets appear on the inner surface of the jar. These water droplets are most likely the direct result of (a) hydrolysis and photosynthesis (b) light absorption and reflection (c) transpiration and condensation (d)intracellular and extracellular digestion

18. The circulatory system of the earthworm is most similar in structure and function to that of a (a) hydra (b) protozoan (c) grasshopper (d) human

19. Which organism contains an open circulatory system? (a) earthworm (b) grasshopper (c) hydra (d) ameba

20.How are nutrients transported from the blood of an earthworm to the muscle cells of its body wall?
(a) The blood flows directly into the muscle cells.
(b) The nutrients diffuse through capillary walls and through the cell membranes.
(c) The nutrients pass through pores at the ends of nephridia.
(d) The nutrients diffuse through the skin from the outside environment.

21. Which organism has an internal, closed circulatory system that brings materials from the external environment into contact with its cells? (a) ameba (b) paramecium (c) hydra (d) earthworm

22. Materials are circulated within the cells of a liydra by (a) osmosis, only (b) osmosis and diffusion (c) cyclosis and diffusion (d) a transport system

23. Hemoglobin is found in the blood of (a) humans and earthworms (b) earthworms and grasshoppers (c) grasshoppers and humans (d) humans, only

24. A circulatory system in which the blood remains within vessels is called a(n) (a)closed circulatory system (b)open circulatory system (c)internal circulatory system (d) external circulatory system

25. The intestinal fold of the earthworm and the villi of the human small intestine function primarily to
(a) increase the surface area for absorption of digested nutrients
(b) excrete metabolic wastes
(c) circulate blood
(d) force the movement of food in one direction through the digestive tract

26. Pairs of aortic arches are found in the circulatory system of the (a) hydra (b) grasshopper (c) earthworm (d) paramecium

27. Which compounds are produced in human muscle cells as a result of the oxidation of glucose in the absence of oxygen? (a) lipase and water (b) sucrase and carbon dioxide (c) ethyl alcohol and ATP (d) lactic acid and ATP

28. Most animals make energy available for cell activity by transferring the potential energy of glucose to ATP. This process occurs during (a) aerobic respiration, only (b) anaerobic respiration, only (c) both aerobic and anaerobic respiration (d) neither aerobic nor anaerobic respiration

29. Which of the following processes releases the greatest amount of energy?
(a) the oxidation of one glucose molecule to lactic acid molecules
(b) the oxidation of one glucose molecule to carbon dioxide and water molecules
(c) the conversion of two glucose molecules to a maltose molecule
(d) the conversion of one glucose molecule to alcohol and carbon dioxide molecules

30. Alcohol fermentation and aerobic respiration are similar in that both processes (a) utilize light (b) produce ethyl alcohol (c) require free oxygen (d) release carbon dioxide

31. Respiratory enzymes are present in
(a) animal cells, but not plant cells
(b) plant cells, but not animal cells
(c) neither animal nor plant cells
(d) both animal and plant cells

32. In animal cells, the energy to convert ADP to ATP comes directly from (a) hormones (b) sunlight (c) organic molecules (d) inorganic molecules

33. Vigorous activity of human voluntary muscle tissues may result in the production of lactic acid. Insufficient amount of which gas would result in the buildup of lactic acid in muscle cells? (a) carbon dioxide (b) nitrogen (c) oxygen (d) hydrogen

34. The organelles in which most of the reactions of aerobic cellular respiration take place are (a) ribosomes (b) chloroplasts (c) lysosomes (d) mitochondria

35. Anaerobic respiration of glucose is a less efficient energy-releasing system than aerobic respiration of glucose. One of the reasons for this is that in anaerobic respiration
(a) lactic acid contains much unreleased potential energy
(b) water contains much released potential energy
(c) oxygen serves as the final hydrogen acceptor
(d) chlorophyll is hydrolyzed into PGAL molecules

36. The tracheal tubes of the grasshopper and the air spaces of a geranium leaf are similar in that they both
(a) regulate the flow of urea into and out of the organism
(b) are the major sites for the ingestion of nutrients
(c) contain enzymes that convert light energy to chemical bond energy
(d) are surrounded by moist internal surfaces where gas exchange occurs

37. In the earthworm, the exchange of gases with the external environment occurs through the (a) skin (b) lungs (c) nephridia (d) pharynx

38. Protists obtain oxygen from the environment through (a) spiracles (b) cell membranes (c) contractile vacuoles (d) mitochondria

39. Openings in plant tissues that allow the exchange of respiratory gases are (a) tracheae and spiracles (b) spiracles and lenticels (c) lenticels and stomates (d) spiracles and stomates

40. The mucus secreted by cells of the external body wall of the earthworm
(a) acts as a stimulus upon the paired nephridia
(b) permits transpiration to be accomplished
(c) is an excretory waste product
(d) provides a moist surface for gas exchange

41. In the hydra, the exchange of respiratory gases takes place by
(a) diffusion through the cell membranes
(b)active transport through the skin
(c)pinocytosis through the cell membranes
(d) diffusion through lenticels


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